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Here you will find brief explanations for numerous keywords concerning vegetable oils and fats as well as food hygiene and analysis. If you find that any information is missing here, please do not hesitate to write us an E-mail. We will do our best to procure the relevant information for you.


Acid value Defines the proportion of free fatty acids in the fat and correlates with the smoke point.
Acrylamide Chemical reaction product of acrylic acid and ammonia. Carcinogenic substance produced during heat treatment of starchy and water-poor foods, provided special amino acids and reducing sugars are not present in the food.
Allergen Allergic substance.
Animal fat For example milk fat. Less unsaturated fatty acids than vegetable fats, higher melting point.
Anisidine value Provides information about the extent of fat oxidation. A high anisidine value indicates an oil with a strong oxidative load.
Antioxidants Protect the fat from oxidative degradation. Antioxidants are e.g. B. tocopherols. A distinction is made between synthetic and natural antioxidants.
Anti-polymerization agent Used in industry as stabilizers for frying fats, effective from 130 °C, e.g. B. ascorbyl palmitate, sesamolin.
Ascorbic acid Vitamin C


BHA Butylated hydroxyanisole, synthetic antioxidant
BHT Butylated hydroxytoluene, synthetic antioxidant
Bleaching Essential step in refining. Addition of bleaching earth to lighten the colour, remove heavy metals and other contaminants (PAHs) from crude oil.
Blended fats Mixture of animal (milk fat) and vegetable fats.


Chemical refining Includes three to four different stages: degumming, deacidification with alkali, bleaching if necessary and deodorization.
Citric acid E330
Cold Pressed Oils These oils are made using only mechanical processes without the use of heat to preserve flavor and other ingredients.


Damping Treatment of the oil with steam at 180-240 °C, deodorization.
Deacidification Part of chemical refining. Neutralization of free fatty acids with the help of caustic soda. Even in physical refining, deacidification can only be achieved with steam at high temperatures in a vacuum.
Degree of saturation Number of double bonds (there are 0 to 6 double bonds in a fatty acid).
Degumming Part of refining, lecithins are separated.
Dehydration Process of splitting off water.
Denaturation Structural change of biomolecules such as proteins.
Deodorization Part of refining, called steaming, to remove unwanted volatile substances in the oil.
Dimethylpolysiloxane E900: Silicone is used as an antifoam agent in industry.
Double bond Unsaturated, easily oxidizable compound of two atoms.


E330 Citric acid
E900 Dimethylpolysiloxane: silicone, used as an antifoam agent in industry.
Emulsifiers Surface-active substances such as surfactants or mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids for the production and stabilization of an emulsion.
Emulsion Homogeneous mixture of liquids that are normally immiscible, e.g. B. water and fat.
Essential Fatty Acid The human body cannot produce this fatty acid itself and must therefore be ingested through food.


The human body cannot produce this fatty acid itself and must therefore be ingested through food. In the process, unsaturated bonds of the fatty acids are cracked and converted into saturated ones.
Fatty acids Organic compound of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Basic component of all fats and oils. Fatty acids differ in chain length and number of double bonds (degree of saturation). There are saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Fractionated edible fats Are refined or unrefined edible fats that are produced by physical processes such as cooling, in which the oil is divided into a higher and a lower melting part.
Free fatty acids Soaps, polar compounds, reduce smoke point.


Gallates Synthetic derivatives of gallic acid are mainly used as antioxidants.
Glycerin basic component of fats. Each glycerol molecule in the fats is linked (esterified) with one, two and usually three fatty acids.


HACCP Hazard critical control points. Critical points in the production of food that require special care.
Hardening Hydrogenation
Hydrogenated fats Are refined fats whose fatty acids are physically and nutritionally modified by reacting with hydrogen and a catalyst (hydrogenation).
Hydrogenation Addition of hydrogen to other chemical elements or compounds. Opposite of dehydration
Hydrolysis Cleavage of the entire fatty acid in the glycerol molecule.


Lecithin Phosphorus-containing, fat-like compounds. Used in industry as emulsifiers.
Linoleic acid Essential Fatty Acid
Liquid fats Rich in unsaturated, short-chain fatty acids.


Maillard reaction Takes place between amino acids and reducing sugar or oxidation products and causes the fried food to turn brown when fried.
Melting point Melting point
Monomers Individual component of a mostly unsaturated organic compound.


Native Oils Cold Pressed Oils
Natural antioxidants For example sesamolin, rosemary extracts increase the heat stability of the oils.
Neutralization Deacidification, part of refining


Oxidation Reaction of oxygen with another organic (fat) or inorganic substance (metal).


Peroxide value Determines the content of peroxide groups formed in the oil. A high peroxide value is an indication of an oil with an oxidative load.
Physical Refining More complex than chemical refining, but requires fewer refining stages, lower environmental impact and lower refining losses.
Polar connections Compounds where the center of gravity of the positive and negative charges do not coincide, e.g. B. free fatty acids, polymers.
Polar compounds In addition to the naturally occurring polar fat components, they mainly contain thermally-oxidatively modified components. At a polar fraction of 24%, the fat is spoiled.
Polymerization Chemical reaction in which monomers are converted into polymers under the influence of catalysts and with the breaking of the multiple bond.
Polymers Molecules with long chains composed of several monomers linked together. Cause foam formation in the frying fat when heated and increase the viscosity.


Refined Edible Oils Unlike cold-pressed oils, these are usually extracted with solvents and then refined.
Refining Production of the oil by heating the raw materials. A distinction is made between chemical and physical refining, usually in four stages: degumming, deacidification, bleaching and deodorization.


Semi-liquid fats Combination of solid and liquid fat components
Silicone Dimethylpolysiloxane (E 900) is used in industry as an antifoam agent.
Smoke point Temperature at which the oil begins to smoke due to the presence of oxidative change products. Can provide information about the thermal resilience of the oil.
Surface tension Property of the surface between a liquid and a gas, such as B. Air.
Synthetic antioxidants For example gallates, tocopherols, BHT and BHA. Only increase the oxidative stability of the oils and less their heat stability.


Tocopherols Antioxidants that differ in terms of their effectiveness (biological and antioxidant).
Trans fat Fatty acids with trans-configured carbon double bonds. Occur when fat hardens through hydrogenation or when heated to more than 220 °C (not when frying).
Transesterification Chemical reaction that changes the position of the fatty acid in the triglyceride molecule. The goal of transesterification is improved melting behavior.
Transesterified edible fats Refined edible fats. The hydrogenation changes the melting behavior and the arrangement of the fatty acids in the triglycerides.
Triglycerides polymeric compounds. Main component of vegetable and animal fats and oils, consisting of fatty acids and glycerin.


Unrefined edible oils Cold-pressed oils, which may, however, be treated gently with steam (max. 140 °C).
Unsaturated fatty acids Fatty acids with a double bond. A distinction is made between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
UV absorption of the oil Dependence on the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the fat.


Vegetable fats Contain more unsaturated fatty acids than animal fats, therefore have a lower melting point and are easily digestible.
Viscosity Measure of the "thickness" of a substance.
Vitamins Organic vitamins cannot be produced by the body itself, e.g. B. Vitamin A

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